The comprisal of multiple parties or causes of action into one proceeding.
Joint tenancy
When two or more persons are equally owners of some property. As the joint tenants die, their shares accrue to the surviving tenants so that, eventually, the entire share is held by one person. A valid joint tenancy is said to require the "four unities": unity of interest (each joint tenant must have an equal interest), unity of title (the interests must arise from the same document), unity of possession (each joint tenant must have an equal right to occupy the entire property) and unity of time (the interests of the joint tenants must arise at the same time).
Joint venture
A business structure involving multiple parties coming together for a common purpose. Joint ventures need not be in the form of a company.
Court's decision as to the rights of the parties in an action brought before it. More broadly, the court's reasoning and conclusion, as well as its pronouncement of the legal consequences.
The power or authority to act. In terms of a legislature it is the authority to legislate. In terms of a court it is the authority to hear cases and hand down judgements.
Legal theory or philosophy.
To be capable of being determined by a court. Things which are not justiciable include prerogative powers such as the power to declare war.


A blood or marriage relative. The "next of kin" refers to the closest relative.


legal doctrine where those who take too long to assert a legal right, lose their entitlement to compensation.
An agreement which grants the right to exclusive possession of land for a defined period of time. The party granting the right is referred to as the lessor and the party taking possession as the lessee.
A gift made through a will.
Defamation by writing.
A property right which remains attached to an object that has been sold, but not fully paid for, until complete payment has been made. It may involve possession of the object until the debt is paid or it may be registered against the object. Ultimately, a lien can be enforced by a court sale of the property to which it attached and then the debt is paid off from the proceeds of the sale.
Life estate
A right to use and to enjoy land only for the life of the life tenant. The estate reverts back to the grantor or to some other specified person at the death of the person to whom it is given. A property right to last only for the life of the life tenant is called the estate "pur sa vie." If it is for the duration of the life of a third party, it is called an estate "pur autre vie". The rights of the life tenant are restricted to conduct which does not permanently change the land or structures upon it.
Limited company
A company whose members are only liable for a limited amount in the event of bankruptcy. Such companies are identified by the abbreviation "Ltd" at the end of their name. Examples include companies limited by shares and companies limited by guarantee
Liquidated damages
Damages for a specified breach of contract which are predetermined on the basis of the estimated loss flowing from the breach.


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